# Python Exponent | Calculate exponent in Python

Exponential is a mathematical operation where the number gets multiplied to a definite set of times to itself. For Example, 2 to the 3rd (written like this: 23) means: 2 x 2 x 2 = 8.

## How To Calculate Exponent In Python?

In Python exponent is calculated using the following approaches.

1. Using ** Operator
2. Using pow() method
3. Using math.pow() method
4. Using numpy.np() method

## Using ** operator to calculate exponent in Python

In mathematics, we use the caret symbol `^` to define the exponent value 23 is read as 2 to the power of 3. However, in programming languages, we use the caret `^` symbol is reserved for the bitwise xor operator.

The exponent operator is defined using the two consecutive asterisks `**` between the base and the exponent number in Python. In simple terms `**` operator is called an exponent operator in Python.

Like the regular multiplication, the exponent operator `**` works between 2 numbers, the base and the exponent number.

If we need to calculate the exponential of 23 in Python, we can do it using the `** `operator as shown below.

``````print(2**3)
# returns 8``````

### Example Exponentiation in Python using ** operator

``````print(2**3)
print(542**22)
print(-32**3)
print(22**-3)
print(0.25**0.1)
print(0.77**-2)
print(-9**-9)``````

Output

``````8
1405996708053103199772546738510358672795198151494953456369664
-32768
9.391435011269723e-05
0.8705505632961241
1.6866250632484399
-2.581174791713197e-09``````
`Note: The `**` operator raises `ZeroDivisionError `if we raise 0.0 to a negative power. Similarly, when we raise a negative number to a fractional power, it returns a complex number.`

### Example ZeroDivisionError

``print(0.0 ** -10) ``

Output

``````Traceback (most recent call last):
File "c:\Personal\IJS\Code\main.py", line 3, in <module>
print(0.0 ** -10)
ZeroDivisionError: 0.0 cannot be raised to a negative power``````

## Using pow() function to calculate exponent in Python

We can also calculate exponential in Python using the built-in pow() function. The `pow()` method takes two main parameters and returns the power of the number as output.

pow() Parameters

The `pow()` function takes three parameters:

• x – a number, the base
• y – a number, the exponent
• z (optional) – a number used for modulus

Hence,

• pow(x, y) is equal to xy
• pow(x, y, z) is equal to xy % z

### Example – Calculate exponential in Python using pow() function

``````print(pow(2,3))
print(pow(542,22))
print(pow(-32,3))
print(pow(22,-3))
print(pow(0.25,0.1))
print(pow(0.77,-2))
print(pow(-9,-9))
print(pow(7,2,5))``````

Output

``````8
1405996708053103199772546738510358672795198151494953456369664
-32768
9.391435011269723e-05
0.8705505632961241
1.6866250632484399
-2.581174791713197e-09
4``````

## Using math.pow() function to calculate exponent in Python

Like the `pow()` method, we can leverage the math module in Python to calculate the exponent. The main difference between `pow()` and `math.pow()` is `math.pow()` always returns a float value even if the whole number is passed as arguments, while `pow()` will only return float if at least one float argument.

The `math.pow()` function takes two required parameters, x and y and returns the power of the number as a floating-point value.

Syntax

`math.pow(x, y)`
`Note: If x is negative and y is not an integer, it returns a ValueError.`

### Example: Calculate Exponentiation in Python using math.pow() function

``````import math

print(math.pow(2,3))
print(math.pow(542,22))
print(math.pow(-32,3))
print(math.pow(22,-3))
print(math.pow(0.25,0.1))
print(math.pow(0.77,-2))
print(math.pow(-9,-9))``````

Output

``````8.0
1.4059967080531033e+60
-32768.0
9.391435011269723e-05
0.8705505632961241
1.6866250632484399
-2.581174791713197e-09``````

## Using numpy.power() function to calculate exponential in Python

You can also use the NumPy module, which has its own function `power()` to calculate the exponent.

The NumPy module needs to be installed first before importing, as shown below.

```# Python 2
pip install numpy```
```# Python 3
pip3 install numpy```

### Example: Calculate Exponentiation in Python using numpy.power() function

``````import numpy as np

print(np.power(2,3))
print(np.power(542,22))
print(np.power(-32,3))
print(np.power(0.25,0.1))
``````

Output

``````8
-398458880
-32768
0.8705505632961241``````

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