Python chr(): A Step-By-Step Guide

The chr() function takes an integer (representing Unicode) as an input argument and returns a string representing a character.

Syntax – chr(num)

Parameter and Return Value

  • The chr() function can only take one parameter and integer as an argument. 
  • The valid range of the integer is between 0 to 1,1141,111(0x10FFFF in base 16), representing the equivalent Unicode characters.
  • If you pass an integer outside the range, Python will throw ValueError
  • The chr() method returns a string(single character) whose Unicode code point is an integer.
  • The chr() is nothing but the inverse of ord() function.

Example of chr() function in Python

In the below examples, we are passing various Unicode numbers to chr() method and converting them into equivalent Unicode characters.

print("Unicode character of integer 65 is", chr(65))
print("Unicode character of integer 8364 is", chr(8364))

# Print Alphabets using Unicode
for i in range(65, 65+26):
    print(chr(i), end = " , ")

Output

Unicode character of integer 65 is A
Unicode character of integer 8364 is €
A , B , C , D , E , F , G , H , I , J , K , L , M , N , O , P , Q , R , S , T , U , V , W , X , Y , Z ,

Example – ValueError: chr() arg not in range(0x110000)

If you pass an integer outside the Unicode range, Python will throw a ValueError, as shown in the below example.

print(chr(4000000))
print(chr(-4))

Output

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "c:\Projects\Tryouts\main.py", line 1, in <module>
    print(chr(4000000))
ValueError: chr() arg not in range(0x110000)

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